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电子信息产业发展质量提升

点击:3511 日期:2016-02-23 选择字号:

本文由pcb铣刀转载自pcb信息网

  2015年,我国电子信息行业发展有喜有忧,喜的是行业在工业经济下行背景下保持了较快增长,发展质量得到明显提升。忧的是下行压力凸显,整体竞争实力偏弱,核心、高端和基础产品供给仍相对不足。造成行业发展喜忧参半的原因,有宏观环境变革带来的影响,也有政策环境不完善方面的因素,最根本的原因还是创新能力、产业结构有待优化。

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  ZHOUZIXUEZHICHU,ZONGTILAIKAN,2015NIANWOGUODIANZIXINXIXINGYEFAZHANYOUXIYOUYOU,XIDESHI,XINGYEZAIGONGYEJINGJIXIAXINGBEIJINGXIABAOCHILEJIAOKUAIZENGZHANG,FAZHANZHILIANGDEDAOMINGXIANTISHENG。YOUDESHI,XINGYEFAZHANDONGLIQIEHUAN,XIAXINGYALITUXIAN,ZHENGTIJINGZHENGSHILIPIANRUO,HEXIN、GAODUANHEJICHUCHANPINGONGJIRENGXIANGDUIBUZU。ZAOCHENGXINGYEFAZHANXIYOUCANBANDEYUANYIN,YOUHONGGUANHUANJINGBIANGEDAILAIDEYINGXIANG,YEYOUZHENGCEHUANJINGBUWANSHANFANGMIANDEYINSU,ZUIGENBENDEYUANYINHAISHICHUANGXINNENGLI、CHANYEJIEGOUYOUDAITISHENGHEYOUHUA。CONGZHENGTIYUNXINGQINGKUANGLAIKAN。

  一是行业增速领先,规模持续扩大。2015年,规模以上电子信息制造业增加值增长10.5%,高于全国工业平均水平4个百分点以上。电子制造业与软件业收入规模合计将超过15万亿元,同比增长10%;其中,电子制造业实现收入10.9万亿元,增长8%;软件业收入4.2万亿元,增长16%。从行业结构看,制造业与软件业收入份额对比为65∶35,与“十二五”初期的80∶20相比,软硬件比例更趋协调,结构明显优化。在制造业中,内生动力明显增强,内销市场与内资企业比重进一步提升,分别达到54%和40%,同比均提高3个百分点以上,比“十二五”初期提高10个百分点左右;在软件业中,服务化趋势日益凸显,信息技术服务收入比重突破50%,比上年提高1个百分点,比“十二五”初期提高20个百分点以上。

  二是投资快速增长,资源整合活跃。2015年,电子信息行业500万元以上项目预计完成固定资产投资额1.4万亿元,同比增长14%,高于工业平均水平5个百分点以上。在直接投资快速增长的同时,以品牌、技术和渠道为目的的整合并购步伐也在不断加快。据汤森路透报告显示,2015年我国境内并购中,以电子信息为代表的高科技行业并购总额达到1222亿美元,增长200%以上,金额与增速均居于各行业首位。从跨国并购合作看,紫光控股新华三,浪潮与思科、中电科与微软成立合资公司等,显示出国内企业整合国外资源的能力不断提升。

  三是创新能力增强,产业体系优化。近年来,在国内外电子信息领域竞争不断加剧背景下,我国电子信息企业对研发创新的重视程度不断提高。“十二五”期间,我国电子信息领域发明专利年均增速超过20%;截止2015年末,行业平均研发投入强度接近3%;以电子信息百强企业为代表的骨干企业研发投入强度超过6%。北斗导航、高性能计算、新型显示、移动通信等领域取得多项重大技术突破。研发创新能力提升有效促进了电子信息产业体系的优化与完善,“缺芯少屏”局面得到扭转。在新一代通信技术、可穿戴设备和大数据等新兴领域,政府和企业把握先机,积极布局,取得良好的发展局面。

  四是产品外贸疲软,竞合层次提升。2015年,我国电子信息产品进出口总额约1.3万亿美元,同比下降1.2%;其中出口7810亿美元,下降1.1%;进口5260亿美元,下降1.5%;虽然电子产品进出口呈下降态势,但降幅明显小于全国货物贸易水平,在全国外贸发展中仍发挥了积极的支撑作用。从外贸结构看,内资企业与一般贸易出口保持较快增长,增速超过两位数,占比分别提高3个和4个百分点。从大企业培育来看,2015年电子信息领域有4家企业入围世界500强,有4家互联网企业和2家集成电路设计企业进入全球十强,通信设备制造商跻身世界第一阵营。在参与国际规则制定方面,我国作为重要参与方,推动《信息技术协定》

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